Email Management - Quick Tips

Keep your inbox as empty as possible

  • Move important messages to proper sub-folders or delete unwanted right away.
  • Delete e-mails that are no longer required (outdated meeting notices, newsletters of no real value)
  • Keep inbox free of clutter and make easier to sport important messages.

Stop unnecessary emails

Eliminate sources of unnecessary e-mails
  • Unsubscribe Non-Work related (Jokes, Promo emails) or make it weekly/monthly update for needed one.
  • Mark as Spam as soon as you find it. (unknown senders, &%9SD@* subjects etc) DO NOT try your luck
  • Apply rules for unwanted emails.

Organize Emails

  • Consider inbox/draft/sent items as temporary storage for emails.
  • Create Folders/Labels wisely and use proper names for folders (Based on subject/Actions).
  • Move items from Sent Items to appropriate folders.
  • Got an email thread with 10+ continuous conversations ? Keep the latest one only
  • Use proper filters (based on sender, subject, Special words) and make email organized automatically.

Searching Emails

Search with words/sender/dates
Search with wild characters (John*Smith, Lisa? etc). Simply typing a few words will return all possible results.
Use sort function with Sender, Dates

Subnet Mask Information - Quick Reference Sheet

Address Bits Pref NetMask
1  0 /32
2  1 /31
4  2 /30
8  3 /29
16  4 /28
32  5 /27
64  6 /26
128  7 /25
256  8 /24 255.255.255
512  9 /23 255.255.254
1 K 10 /22 255.255.252
2 K 11 /21 255.255.248
4 K 12 /20 255.255.240
8 K 13 /19 255.255.224
16 K 14 /18 255.255.192
32 K 15 /17 255.255.128
64 K 16 /16 255.255
128 K 17 /15 255.254
256 K 18 /14 255.252
512 K 19 /13 255.248
1 M 20 /12 255.24
2 M 21 /11 255.224
4 M 22 /10 255.192
8 M 23 /9 255.128
16 M 24 /8 255
32 M 25 /7 254
64 M 26 /6 252
128 M 27 /5 248
256 M 28 /4 240
512 M 29 /3 224
1024 M 30 /2 192

How to check CPU count information (LUX)

Quick methods to check.


[root~]# dmidecode -t processor |grep CPU
        Version:  Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E7- 4830 @ 2.13GHz
        Version:  Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E7- 4830 @ 2.13GHz
        Version:  Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E7- 4830 @ 2.13GHz
        Version:  Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E7- 4830 @ 2.13GHz

Register in RHN after installation

There are many situation we need to register the host/server to RHN server manually, due to network issues, bad certificate/authentification or time difference on the host during installation.

Manul RHN registration is quite easy.
1. Check /etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid file already exist, if YES delete the file

# rm /etc/sysconfig/rhn/systemid 

2. Register with the update agent using rhn_register

# rhn_register 

Other useful RHN client commands

Check Linux/Unix Operating System Version,Maintenance Level,Architecure

We can identify the Unix Operating System architecture by uname or arch command. Try below examples.


Linux kernel version and hardware architecture:
# uname -m
# arch

x86_64  : 64-bit architecture
i686   : 32-bit architecture.

Display distribution details and kernel version
# lsb_release -idr
Distributor ID: RedHatEnterpriseServer
Description:    Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 5.7 (Tikanga)
Release:        5.7

dmidecode - best usages [updated]

Check Hyper-threading (Virtualization) Enabled or not
# dmidecode -t processor | grep HTT
                HTT (Multi-threading)
                HTT (Multi-threading)

Check CPU/CORE info
# dmidecode -t 4 | egrep CPU
        Version:  Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E7- 4830 @ 2.13GHz
        Version:  Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E7- 4830 @ 2.13GHz

UNIX / Linux shutdown Commands

Shutdown the machine immediately
# shutdown -h now

Reboot the machine immediately
# shutdown -r now

Shutdown the machine with user defined message
# shutdown -h now 'System is going down for upgrade'

Scheduling the shutdown with 24 hour format
# shutdown -h 20:00

Check MD5 in windows using fciv

The File Checksum Integrity Verifier (FCIV) is a command-prompt utility that computes and verifies cryptographic hash values of files. FCIV can compute MD5 or SHA-1 cryptographic hash values. These values can be displayed on the screen or saved in an XML file database for later use and verification. 

fciv filename

How to find the Bladecenter/Enclosure name of Blade

You got a blade server details to work with and you need to find the enclosure name and details, the blade installed in, how ?
Its so easy. Just login to the blade's iLO and go to the menu as shown in the screenshot.

How to find iLO MAC address for BladeCenter/Enclosure

Open the iLO console (HP here in example)
goto to the menu as described in the screenshot.

Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts - Part 4

Source :

Universal Access - VoiceOver keyboard commands
For information about VoiceOver key combination differences in Mac OS X v10.6, see this article.
Command-F5 or
fn Command-F5
Turn VoiceOver on or off
Control Option-F8 or
fn Control Option-F8
Open VoiceOver Utility (if VoiceOver is on)
Control Option-F7 or
fn Control Option-F7
Display VoiceOver menu (if VoiceOver is on)

Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts - Part 3

Source :

Application and other Mac OS X keyboard commands
Note: Some applications may not support all of the below application key combinations.
Command-SpaceShow or hide the Spotlight search field (if multiple languages are installed, may rotate through enabled script systems)
Control-AMove to beginning of line/paragraph
Control-BMove one character backward
Control-DDelete the character in front of the cursor
Control-EMove to end of line/paragraph
Control-FMove one character forward
Control-HDelete the character behind the cursor
Control-KDelete from the character in front of the cursor to the end of the line/paragraph
Control-LCenter the cursor/selection in the visible area
Control-NMove down one line

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